Alternative name(s): Osmanli, Turks (nl), turco (es)

Language family: Altaic

Language group: Turkotatar

Geographical use: Turkey, Cyprus, Northeast Bulgaria, the Rhodope area (Bulgaria), Greece, Iraq and Iran

Information: It is closely related to Azeri and Turkmen.

Present-day Turkish was introduced in Asia Minor by the Seljukian Turcs in the 11th century. Their language -also called Old Anatolian- was originally written in the Arabic writing. In 1929 the Roman alphabet was adopted.

The Turkish alphabet contains 29 letters. There are 8 vowels and 21 consonants. Although the letters Q, W, X do not appear, there are 6 more letters, namely: Ç, G, S, Ö, Ü, I.
The other letters are the same in both alphabets, but they are pronounced differently.
NOTE: Please notice the letters i and i (but without dot).

A - a as in "ugly"
B - be as in "bell"
C - ce as in "jealous"
Ç – çe as in "chair"
D - de as in "decade"
E - e as in "elephant"
F - fe as in "federal"
G - ge as in "get"
G - ge*
H - he as in "helicopter"
I - i as in "number"
I - i as in "insect"
J - je as in "azure" (garaj = garage, pronounced as in French & English)
K - ke as in "kettle"
L - le as in "leg"
M - me as in "men"
N - ne as in "never"
O - o as in "orchestra"
Ö - ö as in "urge"
P - pe as in "pen"
R - re as in "red"
S - se as in "sell"
S - se as in "shelf"
T - te as in "telephone"
U - u as in "oops!"
Ü – ü as in "fruit, nude"
V - ve as in "vegetable"
Y - ye as in "yes"
Z - ze as in "zebra"
*NOTE: There is no word that begins with the letter G in Turkish.

Article: A Mathematical Modeling on Turkish