Alternative name(s): Slovaaks/Slowaaks (nl), slovencina (sk), slovakiska (sv)
Language family: Indo-European
Language group: Slavic
Geographical use: Slovakia, Hungary and around Novi Sad (Serbia)
Information: Present-day Slovak is based on a central Slovak dialect. The development of a standard language occurred quite late, at the end of the 18th century.
Of all Slavic languages Slovak is the easiest language to be understood by its language group colleagues. That is because Slovak has a conservative sound system, because it has maintained a lot of originally Slavic words, and because it has a transparent morphology.
Contrary to other Slavic languages, Slovak makes the difference between short and long vowels. Diphthongs were also developed (ia, ie, iu, ou and uo which has now become ô). Some consonants are written like in Czech (c, , z). Slovak also has soft dental consonants (t', d', l', n) but does not have the Slavic soft r. The stress is on the first syllable.
Slovak has three genders (male, female and neutral) and six cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental and locative). The adjectives adapt to the gender, number and function of the nouns.
The verbs are conjugated in 4 tenses: present, past, perfectum and imperfectum. Slovak has a lot of frequentative verbs that describe a repetitive action.
The word order rules say that the most informative elements need to be placed at the end of a sentence. This way the ruling order, subject-verb-object, is regularly changed.
The numerical system is extremely complicated.