Lezgian

Alternative name(s): Kurish

Language family: Caucasian

Language group: East Caucasian

Geographical use: the northeast of the Caucasus (Russia)

Information: There are around 270,000 speakers. Lezgian has three main dialect groups: Kyre (incl. Gyne dialect - the base for the literary language) and Akhty spoken in Daghestan, and Quba spoken in Azerbaijan.

The Lezgian vowel system is quite simple. There are only six vowel phonemes, one of them ('o') occuring only in borrowed words. The consonant inventory, on the other hand, is fairly complex. The guttural sounds are abundant and glottalized consonants exist. There is a glottalized guttural one as well.

Lezgian has no gramatical gender, no noun classes and no articles. On the other hand it has 18 cases. However, the cases are very easily formed and not that hard to master.
A typical Lezgian concept is ergativity, meaning that instead of saying "I hit him" a Lezgian says Me hit he".

The Lezgian verbs do not inflect for number (never ever) and person (save the imperative mood) which means that for each tense there is ONE and only ONE verb form. Moreover, those tense forms are usually quite regularly constructed. What may seem strange is heavy usage of the plethora of participal forms.

Lezgian uses the Cyrillic script.

 

Letzeburgesch

Lhotsam