Almost all languages can be brought under a specific language family. Each family consists of one or more language groups. This overview of those families clearly shows you what languages are related to one another.

The language families are:

Afro-Asian family
Algonkin-Wakashan family (Indian languages)
Altaic family
Ando-Equatorial family (Indian languages)
Austro-Asian family
Azteco-Tanoan family (Indian languages)
Caucasian family
Creole family

Dravidian family
Eskimo-Aleut family
Ge-Pano-Caribbean family (Indian languages)
Hamito-Semitic family cfr Afro-Asian languages
Hokan-Siouan family (Indian languages)
Indo-European family
Indogermanic family
cfr Indo-European family
Indo-Pacific family
Khoisan family
Macro-Chibchan family (Indian languages)
Macro-Oto-Manguean family (Indian languages)
Malay-Polynesian family
Na-Dene family (Indian languages)
Niger-Kordofic family
Nilosaharic family (Indian languages)
Paleo-Asian family
Penutic family (Indian languages)
Sino-Tibetan family
Uralic family
Isolated languages